Nasik Region(Maharastra State): Biggest wine producing region in India. This region includes Pune, Nasik and Ahmed Nagar. It is above 800 meter sea level. Several top wineries are located in this area including Chateau Indage and Sula Wines.
Sangali Region (Maharastra State): This region includes Solapur, Sangali, Satara and Latur. It is above 800 meter sea level.
Bangalre Region (Karnataka State): Nandi Hills located about around 45 kilometer North of Bangalore City. Grover Vineyards is located in Nandi Hills.It is above 800 meter sea level.
Himatchal Region: It is located at Northern India. It is upcoming state for the wine production. Temperature varies from 20 C to 40 C. Unique Climate of this region attacts the wine make to produce delicate wine grapes.
It is the summation of weather conditions throughout the year.
Factors : i) Temperature
ii) Solar radiation, sunshine hours
iii) Rainfall, Relative humidity
iv) Wind, Evaporation etc.
Vitis vinifera grape varieties grow under wide range of climatic conditions.
i) Temperature : Diurnal variation with cool nights (15-18o C) and warm days (28-32oC) is essential for successful wine grape production .Degree days that are available during September to March 2200-2750 (Nashik), 2750-3000 (Pune, Narayangaon) 3000-4000 (Sangli, Solapur) normally influences which wine variety to grow and the type of wine to produce. Table wine grapes are grown at 2200-2750 degree days. Dry table wines require mild ripening period with average temperatures of 22-28oC and low diurnal variations. Growing season length should be sufficiently long to mature moderate to heavy crops of grapes. In areas where there is sudden temperature drop and onset of wet weather, there are ripening problems and crop losses. Each variety requires certain heat summation to bring its fruit from full bloom to maturity or a given brix reading. Cool, mild temperatures increase the production of acid (malic and tartaric )in the berries, increase the sugar acid balance and enhances the colour in the red varieties. By contrast hot conditions during ripening period increases the sugar level, hastens maturity, lowers the acid level of grapes and inhibits pigment formation in red varieties. The organic constituents of wine such as alcohol, acids, esters, colour, tannins and aldehydes do have direct bearing on the bouquet, taste and other qualities of individual wines. The level and balance of these constituents in the musts and wines in turn are largely determined by climate (heat summation). High temperatures cause yield loss due to poor fruit set, moisture stress and reduces the rate of photosynthesis. Optimum temperature for photosynthesis 25-30o C and declines rapidly above and falling to zero at 45-50oC and also decreases rapidly below 15oC.
ii) Solar Radiation : Optimum light intensity for photosynthesis varies between 700-1100 micro molar units (30,000-50,000 lux) depending upon the location, topography, variety and training systems.
Both light intensity and temperature are involved in the formation of fruitful buds during May-August. The number of bunch primordia increase with higher light intensity and the fruitfulness of new buds depends on the daily duration of high light intensity falling on the bud itself rather than on whole plant.
High light intensity with high temperature(>36oC) are not conducive for berry colour development, whereas with moderate temperature (28-32o C) and high light intensity there will be good colour development between veraison and ripening.
iii) Rain fall & relative humidity: Generally for economical wine production a reasonable rainfall amount of 55-65 cm annually is desirable between June- October for recharging the subsoil with moisture.
For maximum yield, vines need at least 75 cm water with good distribution throughout fruiting season. Avoid water stress during flowering and early berry growth period till veraison, whereas slight moisture stress during veraison to ripening enhances the quality of berries.
iv) Evaporation : Evaporation is based on various climatic factors such as temperature, day length, wind, vapour pressure and solar radiation which affects plant growth. The actual and potential evapotranspiration is based on the amount of available water in the root zone and the evaporative power of the air.